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Courses Description
COURSE TITLE: Introductory Biochemistry I
UNITS: 3 + 1 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 4 units
Course Content: A short review of the chemistry of the major constituents of cells: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and nucleoproteins. pH and buffers. Enzymes and coenzymes, Metabolism: methods used in the study of metabolism, bioenergetics, metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids and amino acids. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Metabolism of purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides. Biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Regulation of metabolism. Hormones.

COURSE TITLE: Principles of Diseases
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
The course is designed to recognise the phenomena of disease as problems of disturbed physiology and to introduce Pharmacy students to the nature, types and causes of various disease particularly those they are likely to come across during their professional career.
At the end of the course the student should be able to:
(a).   understand the mechanism of cellular injury and death;
(b).   understand the pathophysiological basis/pathogenesis of disease states.
Course Content:
1. The normal cell and the adopted cell.
2. Cell injury and cell death
3. Body's reaction to disease - inflammation and immunity
4. Neoplasia and its clinical aspects.
5. Genetic factors in disease.
6. Immunological factors in disease
7. Fungal and viral infections
8. Parasitic infestations
9. Deficiency diseases
      (a) Protein-calorie malnutrition
      (b) Vitamins and minerals deficiency
10. Sexually transmitted diseases
11. Endocrine and metabolic diseases
12. Neurological and emotional diseases
13. Infectious diseases
14. Adverse reactions to drugs

COURSE TITLE:Forensic Pharmacy & Pharmacy Ethics
UNITS:1 + 0 + 0; 1 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
Objectives: At the end of the course, the students are expected to know:
      a. Pharmacy Laws.
      b. Drug rules and regulations.
      c. Pharmacy and drug-related decrees and Acts promulgated by the Federal Government of Nigeria.
Course Content:
    1. History of Pharmacy in Nigeria
    2. Pharmaceutical Organisations
    3. National Drug Policy
    4. National Drug Formulary & Essentials Drugs List.
    5. Pharmacy Ethics.
    6. Pharmacists Council Decree.
    7. Poisons and Pharmacy Act.
    8. Counterfeit and Fake Drugs (Miscellaneous Provisions Act).
    9. Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors Licence.
    10. Drug Advertisement.
    11. NDLEA Decree.
    12. Indian Hemp Decree.
    13. The Dangerous Drug Act.
    14. NAFDAC Decree.
    15. The Food, Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
    16. Drugs and related products Registration Decree.

COURSE TITLE: Pharmacy Management and Administration I
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
At the end of the course, the students are expected to:
    1. Explain the role of the pharmacist in the management and administration of pharmacies.
    2. Show knowledge of the organisational structure of pharmaceutical concerns.
    3. Have sufficient knowledge of principles of organisation.
    4. Draw up adequate plans for the sustained growth of any concern, given relevant data.
    5. Explain the significance of financial and human resources management in pharmaceutical business. Be able to recruit, train, supervise and motivate the various levels of personnel involved in any pharmaceutical operation.
Course Content:
    a. The role of the pharmacist in the management and as drug controller within the hospital and retail establishments.
    b. Principles of organisation - the classical motivational theory, patterns of management analysis, the classical and humanistic organisational theory, decision making theory, role of financial management in the business, organisational control and leadership;
    c. Pharmacy lay-out in its relation to volume and service to be provided; product selection, store and stock keeping and filing system mechanics.
    d. Staffing and selection of personnel, inter-professional interactions and co-operation.

COURSE TITLE: Pharmacy Management and Administration II
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
At the end of the course, each student should be able to:
    1. Explain the role and functions of a pharmacist in the community Pharmacy.
    2. Show awareness of the legal aspects of setting up a pharmaceutical business.
    3. Show understanding of location analysis and evaluation of various types of pharmacies.
    4. List the various sources of capital for setting up a pharmaceutical business.
    5. Discuss the design and modernization of pharmacies
Course Contents:
    a. Factors relating to starting a community pharmacy, pharmacy as a retail institution, location analysis and evaluation, stock and fixtures, turn-over, goodwill.
    b. Functions and process of marketing, layout, design and modernization of pharmacies, financial arrangement.
    c. Purchasing systems, turn-over and inventory control, pricing and fee concepts, control of costs cash and credits, financial analysis and evaluation.
    d. Arrangement of fixtures, stocks lighting, displays, dispensary area, product selection.
    e. Community medical information service

COURSE TITLE:Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 1 + 1 + 0 = 3 units
1. The student should gain an understanding of:
    (a) the factors affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs
    (b) the different pathways of drug metabolism
    (c) the methods of studying drug metabolism
2. The student should be able to:
    (a) define the basic concepts of pharmacokinetics
    (b) use raw data to derive the pharmacokinetics parameters and models that best describe the process of drug absorption, distribution and elimination
    (c) critically evaluate biopharmaceutical studies - involving drug product bioequivalency.
    (d) design and evaluate dosage regimens of drugs using pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutic parameters.
Course content:
1. Fate of drug after administration including physico-chemical factors affecting drug disposition, routes of drug administration and influence of route of administration on drug bioavailability.
2. Drug Metabolism - Metabolic pathways from chemical structure, metabolic pathways of named examples of drugs, methods of studying drug metabolism.
3. Pharmacokinetics
    (a) Definition of terminology and symbols
    (b) Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption, distribution and elimination (excretion and metabolism) after various route of administration.
    (c) Compartment models - single and multiple compartments as related to drug distribution.
    (d) Pharmacokinetics of multiple dosage regimens and after administration of prolonged or sustained action dosage forms;
    (e) Design of dosage regimens based on pharmacokinetics principles;
    (f) Non-linear pharmacokinetics;
    (g) Relationship between pharmacokinetics parameters and pharmacological response;
    (h) Pharmacogenetics
    (i) Biostatistics

COURSE TITLE: Clinical Pharmacology
UNITS:2 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
Course Description:
1. The underlying principle therein is that the pathophysiology of disease and basic facts of pharmacology must be interdigitated in order to select drugs and establish therapeutic objectives.
2. To foster an attitude of advising the physician based on basic knowledge of therapeutics.
Course Contents:
    1. Introduction to clinical pharmacology
    2. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring.
    3. Mechanism of adverse drug reactions.
    4. Adverse drug interactions
    5. Bronchodilators and Respiratory drugs
    6. Drugs and cardiovascular diseases.
    7. Drug use in gastrointestinal diseases
    8. Anticonvulsants and drugs in neurological disorders
    9. Psychotropic and anxiolytic drugs.
    10. Drug use in pregnancy and lactation and extremes of age
    11. Principle of antimicrobial and antiparasitic chemotherapy
    12. Phases I - IV clinical pharmacological trials and development of new drugs.
    13. Insulin and oral hypoglycaemics and antithyroid drugs.
    14. Antineoplastic drugs and drug use in haematology
    15. Qualitative aspect of therapeutics decision making.

COURSE TITLE: Clincal Pharmacokinetics
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0= 1 unit
The student should be able to
    (a) design, evaluate and individualise dosage regimens in clinical situations, using pharmacokinetic and bropharmaceutic parameters.
    (b) detect potential clinical problems and apply basic pharmacokinetic principles to solve them.
Course Contents:
(1) Pharmacokinetics of drugs under disease states that modify body functions e.g. renal and liver diseases, diseases that modify protein binding etc.
(2) Pharmacokinetics of drugs in the paediatric and elderly populations as well as in pregnant and lactating mothers.
(3) Prescribing under the above conditions
(4) Consideration of the clinical pharmacokinetics of selected drugs used in various disease states

COURSE TITLE: Drug Information Evaluation and communication Skills
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0= 2 units
Course Description:
This course introduces the student to the use of drug literature in the promotion of safe, effective and rational drug therapy. It helps the student to develop the skills for communicating effectively with other health care professionals and the patient. The course is also aimed at preparing the student for rendering health services to the rural populace. It assumes the students knowledge of pharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacotherapeutics.
Terminal Objectives:
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
(a) rapidly retrieve, evaluate and effectively disseminate information on drug therapy;
(b) communicate effectively with other health care professionals and patients;
(c) develop and maintain a patient medication profile for drug monitoring;
(d) counsel a patient on how to use his/her drugs
(e) offer health maintenance care (preventive medicine) involving the education of patients on the prevention of communicable disease, surveillance on patients immunisation status - rural pharmacy service as extension work;
(f) offer acute primary care to patients who have episodic self limiting `diseases;
(g) offer chronic primary care to patients who have chronic diseases or are utilizing chronic medication therapy after diagnosis and stabilisation by a physician;
(h) educate the patient on oral rehydration therapy and personal hygiene; and
(i) educate the patient on use of traditional therapeutic agents and herbal phytotherapy in patient management.
Course Contents:
1. Drug Information retrival and literature evaluation:
    (a) A study of the methods and resources available for the rapid and efficient handling of actual drug information and its effective utilization in the promotion of safe, effective and rational drug therapy.
    (b) Resources needed for the establishment of a drug information centre and the provision of drug information service.
    (c) Development of the hospital formulary system and essential drugs list and publication of drug information bulletin.
2. Communication Skills:
    (a) Appearance as a mode of comunication
    (b) The various styles of listening and response to patient interview and education (pharmacist-patient relationship).
    (c) Factors affecting patient compliance with drug regimen
    (d) Pharmacists' relationship with other health care professionals.

COURSE TITLE: Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 4; 1 + 0 + 12 = 6 units
Course Descriptions:
The clinical pharmacy clerkship consists of the pharmacy based experience (externship) and the clinical clerkship (medical experiences). The pharmacy based practice involves scrutinizing prescriptions for completeness, dispensing and patient counselling under the supervision of a pharmacist. The clinical clerkship involves the posting of students to the hospital wards to form an integral part of the medical team. Emphasis is placed on therapeutic monitoring of patients, rational drug selection and dosing, monitoring for drug interactions and adverse drug reactions, taking of medication histories, patient counselling and education.
Terminal objectives:
At the end of the clerkship, the student should be able to:
    (a) scrutinize a prescription for completeness - eliminating therapeutic duplication, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions and contra-indicated therapy, dispense drugs and counsel patients on their use(s);
    (b) take medication histories which would help in the monitoring of patient compliance;
    (c) keep medication profiles and monitor for drug interactions and adverse reactions;
    (d) monitor patients' drug therapy through the use of plasma drug levels and body fluid chemistry and be able to develop an individualized dosage regimen;
    (e) counsel and educate the patient as well as other health care professionals on the use of drugs through the provision of drug information.
Course Contents:
Pharmacy Supervised experiences (Externship):
(a) Dispensing to in-and-out-patients
Scrutinising of prescriptions and dispens
ing: (i) medication dosage and instructions on mode of administration;
(ii) compatibility of drug combinations, and
(iii) alternatives to prescribed drugs
(b) Patients Counselling/Education:
(i) patient drug history and medication profiles;
(ii) patient medication instruction cards; and
(iii) patient compliance.
(c) Pharmacists' Clinical Role:
(a) dispensing (in and-out-patients)
(b) organisation of patients' medical chart and medication profiles.
(c) medication dosages, posology and administration
(d) monitoring of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions
(e) patient counselling
(d) Signs and symptoms of drug toxicity and ways of treatment.
(e). Postings to Community Pharmacies and the University Health Centre Pharmacy.

COURSE TITLE:Introduction to Pharmacognosy and Organised vegetable Drugs
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 3; 0 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
To link the previous knowledge of the student in biological sciences with pharmacognosy. To familiarise the student with organised drugs available in the world commerce, their morphological, microscopical and chemical characters.
Course Content:
The scope of Pharmacognosy. Classification of Drugs with a brief mention of plant nomenclature, taxonomy; plant description morphology and anatomy. The living plant cell; cell differentiation and cell contents. The following plant drugs will be studied:- Digitalis, Senna, Tobacco, Ocimum, Azadirachta indica, Ficus vogellii, Thevetia spp. Catharantbus roseus; Cascara, Cinnamon, Cassia bark, Cinchona, Rauwolfia Ginger, Zanthoxylum, Clove, Pyrethrum, Fennel, Cardamon, Capscium, Tamarind, Vanilla, Strophantus, Cocoa, Calabar beans, Castor oil beans, Cola, Grains of Paradise, Cannabis sativa. Laboratory classes in which the organised drugs are examined macroscopically, microscopically and chemically will complement the lectures.

COURSE TITLE: Unorganised Drugs
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 1 + 0 + 3 = 2 units
To familiarise the student with unorganised drugs available to the Pharmaceutical profession commercially, their morphological, microscopical and chemical characters. Course Contents:
This course will deal with the unorganised drugs, fibres and surgical dressings. The drugs include Acacia, Tragacanth, Agar, Sterculia Spermaceti, Beeswax, Wool fat, Opium, Aloes, Balsam of Tolu, Balsam of Peru, Styrax, Gelatin, Cotton, Wool, Jute, Hemp, Flax, Silk, Rayon, Bandages and dressings, Cellulose wadding, Rayon dressing; adulteration, substitution and evaluation of surgical dressing. Laboratory classes in which the unorganised drugs are examined macroscopically, microscopically and chemically will complement the lectures.

COURSE TITLE: Drugs of Biological Origin I
UNITS: + 0 + 4; 0 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
At the end of the course, the student would have acquired some knowledge about the source, chemical nature and uses of some important drugs of biological origin.
Course Contents:
CARBOHYDRATES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS - Concepts, classification, biosynthetic origin, and properties. Mannoses and related compounds including fermentation products. Glycosides: - nature, biosynthetic origin and classification, (Holosides, oligosides, sugars, polyosides gums, mucilages, etc). Heterosides (O-, S-, N-, C- glycosides), amino sugars derived antibiotics. AMINO ACIDS and PEPTIDES:- Classification, biosynthetic origin, properties, applications in Pharmacy. PURINES, PYRIMIDINES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS (Methylated purines) VITAMINS - Water and fat solubles, their properties and uses ALKALOIDS Structures, classification, occurrence, biosynthetic origin, general chemical properties, production and evaluation. Alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine, nicotinic acid, phenylalanine tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine. Laboratory classes in which the various natural products of pharmaceutical interests are put to test to determine their chemical nature and purity will complement the lectures:-

COURSE TITLE: Drugs of Biological Origin II
Objectives: As in PCG 301
Course Contents:
ACETATE AND PROPIONATE DERIVED DRUGS - Tetracyclines, Nystatin, Erythromycin - biosynthetic origin, occurrence, classification, properties. Fats, and Waxes - Drugs derived from fats, biosynthetic origin, properties and uses in Pharmacy. POLYKETIDES: Biosynthetic origin, occurrence properties, classification. Anthraquinones, flavonoids and related compounds e.g. griseofulvin. ISOPRENOIDS Concepts, roles, classification, distribution, biosynthetic origin, significance. Sterols, steroids, hormones, cardenolides, steroidal saponins and alkaloids. TERPENOIDS:- Essential oils (accumulation, taxonomic significance, biosynthetic origin, occurrence, preparation, properties, terpeneless oils, uses, testing). Resins, Oleoresins and Balsams. Non-volatile terpenoids (cannabinoids, abietic acid). SHIKIMIDES: Coumarins and derivatives, Lignans, Benzenoids and Gallotannins. Practical classes in which the various natural products of pharmaceutical interest are put to test to determine their chemical nature and purity will complement the lectures.

COURSE TITLE: Separation Techniques in Pharmacy
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 unit
To expose the student to all separation techniques employed in the analysis of drug and drug products.
Course Contents:
Extraction processes used in the preparation of galenicals in Pharmacy; maceration and percolation processes. Hot and cold extractions, continuous hot extraction, principle of partition coefficient between two immiscible liquids. Introduction to the principles and application of the following separation techniques in Pharmacy - the different types of chromatography, paper chromatography (PC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Electrophoresis, column chromatography, counter current chromatography, ion exchange, gel filtration.

COURSE TITLE: Herbal Remedies in Traditional Medicine
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 unit
At the end of the course, the student should be able to understand the basic principles of the traditional healing methods as well as have a working knowledge of the most commonly used herbal drugs in Nigeria. The beneficial and adverse features of traditional form of Health Care will be obvious to the student such that he is better able to work in a community where both traditional and modern forms of treatment (or more of the traditional) are in use. The course will also equip him to be able to assess traditional cures objectively
Course Contents:
Traditional Medicine: definitions and terminology; Historical review methods and techniques. Standardization of herbal portions. Scientific evidence ascertaining some remedies or practices used in traditional medicine. Relationships between plants used in traditional medicine and modern drugs. Advantages and disadvantages of traditional medicine. Integration or co-recognition of traditional and modern medicine. Field trips to traditional medical clinics.

TITLE: Nigerian Medicinal Plants
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 1 + 1 + 0 = 2 units.
To study Nigerian Medicinal Plants that have been investigated chemically and biologically. At the end of the course the student will have knowledge of how to screen for bioactive agents from plant and the state of medicinal plant research in Nigeria
Course Contents:
Methods of obtaining information on medicinal plants. Screening plants for bioactive agents. Guidelines for research on medicinal plants for local drug production. Research trends on medicinal plants. Some common medicinal plants. Field trips within and outside the University campus to see some of the Nigerian Medicinal Plants.

COURSE TITLE: Herbicides, Pesticides and Molluscicides
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 unit
At the end of the course, the student should have a working knowledge of available pesticides (which as a pharmacist, he may have to use); their chemical nature and mode of action. He would also be able to advice on the use of the appropriate pesticides used in cultivation and storage of plant drugs and their hazards to man.


COURSE TITLE: Anatomy and Physiology of Essential Organs I
UNITS: 3 + 0 + 6; 0 + 0 + 0 = 5 units
1. To provide knowledge of the composition and function of blood and body fluids.
2. To teach relevant anatomy, physiology and function of essential body organs.
3. To provide knowledge of some histology and histochemical techniques
Course Contents:
Historical perspective - Blood and Body Fluids, Composition of blood and lymph. Chemistry of Blood plasma. Plasma and serum proteins. Red blood cell functions, White blood cell functions. Defence mechanisms, antibody-antigen interactions. Mechanism of blood coagulation. Blood disorders (anaemias and leukemias) and treatment. Cardiovascular System - Anatomy and physiology of the heart. The electrocardiogram. Principles of blood circulation (systemic, pulmonary and coronary). Cardiac output, arterial venous and capillary pressures. Control of blood pressure Auto-nervous and normal regulations. Cardiac failure and hypertension. Renal System - Physiology, anatomy and functions of the kidney. Formation of urine. Micturition.Regulation of extracellular fluids - diuretics. Regulation of Acid-base balance: Therapeutic alterations of urinary pH. Renal disease and treatment. Control of body pH. Some selected practicals on the above and histology. Respiratory System - Physiology of the respiratory system. Pulmonary ventilation. Mechanism of breathing. Volumes, pressure and composition of respiratory gases. Mechanism of, and factors affecting gaseous exchange. Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluids. Nervous and chemical control of respiration. Respiratory insufficiency. Extraneous influences affecting respiration. Drugs affecting respiration and respiratory disorders. Alimentary System - Physiology of the alimentary tract. Movement of food through the alimentary canal. Secretory functions of the alimentary tract. Digestive juices. The liver and billiary system. Absorption and storage of metabolites. Carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism. Water absorption in the large intestine. Defecation and cathartics. Diseases of the alimentary system (ulcer, diarrhoea, constipation and drug treatment).

COURSE TITLE: Anatomy and Physiology of Essential Organs II
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 4 = 3 units
To acquaint the student with the anatomical and functional organization of autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) and central nervous systems and reproductive systems. To have introductory practical knowledge on effect of drugs on selected tissues.
Course Contents:
Autonomic Nervous System:- Anatomical and functional organisation of the ANS. sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Sympathetic transmission - synthesis, storage, release and distribution of noradrenaline. Evidence for noradrenaline as a neurotransmitter. Parasympathetic - synthesis storage, release and distribution of acetylcholine. Neuromuscular transmission. Practicals.
Central Nervous System - Anatomy of the CNS.
Spinal cord and pathways. Control of muscle movement
Cortical and cerebella control of motor functions.
Basal ganglia and control of movement
Transmission and processing of information. The reticular activating system.
Wakefulness, sleep and attention - EEG waves.
The limbic system and emotions.
Reproductive System - Anatomy and physiology of sex organs.
Some selected practicals on the above.

COURSE TITLE: General Pharmacology I
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 3; 0 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
At the end of the course, the student should be able
1. To know the theories and principles of drug action
2. To know factors that influence drug action
3. To know the parasympathetic, sympathetic and neuromuscular tramsmissions and drug that modify these.
4. To appreciate the classification of receptors.
5. To know standard practical methods relevant to above.
Course Contents:
Introduction: Theories of drug action, agonists, antagonists, affinity constants. Therapeutic index. Principles, design and types of bioassay. Routes of drug administration, factors determining absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs. Drug dosage regimen. Introduction to drug metabolism enzyme induction and drug interaction. Introduction to Pharmacokinetics. Parasympathetic - Pharmacology of drug affecting cholinergic nerve transmission. Sites of action - cholinergic receptors and classification. Cholinesterases and anti-cholinesterases. Sympathetic - Pharmnacology of drugs affecting adrenergic nerve transmission, storage uptake and release of catecholamine, structure-activity relationships in sympathomimetic amines. Neuromuscular Transmission - Neuromuscular blockers, Structure-activity relationship. Ganglion stimulation of blockade. Practical Pharmacology

COURSE TITLE: General Pharmacology II
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 3 = 3 units
At the end of the course, the student should be able
1. To appreciate the pharmacology of drugs used in cardiovascular diseases;
2. To know the genesis and mechanism of action of endogenous compounds (and their antagonist) implicated in allergic reactions.
3. To know the function of different natural and synthetic hormones.
4. To know standard practical methods relevant to 1, and 2 above.
Course Contents:
Hypertension, types of antihypertensive drugs and mechanisms of action. Diuretics. Vasodilators and antianginal drugs - cardiac glycosides, quinidine and quidinine-like drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs. Calcium channel blockers. Autocoids - histamines, 5-hydroxytryphamine prostaglandins and their antagonists. Leukotrienes and their roles in pharmacodynamics. Endocrinology - organisational function of the endocrine system. Gene and membrane active hormones. The hypophyseal hormone and pineal gland. ACTH, Insulin, Glucagon, Parathyroid hormone. Local hormones. Sex hormones - Pregnancy and lactation, Contraceptive steroids, and fertility regulation. Practical Pharmacology.

COURSE TITLE: General Pharmacology III
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 4; 0 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
At the end of the course, the student should be able
1. To know the basic concepts of drug action in the central nervous system (CNS);
2. To know the rational for the clinical applications of these drugs in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases of the CNS.
3. To know experimental methodologies in psycho and neuropharmacology.
Course Contents:
Central Nervous System Pharmacology - Central neurotransmitters Local and general anaesthetics differentiation of action. Pharmacology of pain - aspirin, morphine, mechanism of anti-pyretic anti-inflammatory analgesics, opiates and receptors. Tolerance and dependence. Anxiety-reducing drugs, sedatives and hypnotics, Antipsychotic drug - Mechanisms - Extrapyramidal side effects - Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Wilson's disease. Antidepressant Drugs - Depression. Types of antidepressant drugs - tricyclics - typical and atypical. Modes of action and side effects. Antiepileptic drugs - Epilepsy - types of siezures and drugs used in each case. Convulsant agents - strychnine, bicuculine picrotoxin, tetanus toxin. Psychotomimetic drugs. Psycho and neuropharmacology practicals.

COURSE TITLE:Chemotherapy
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
1. To acquaint the student with the theories on the aetiology of cancer, bacterial infections, and common tropical diseases, and the various pathophysiological states associated with the these diseases.
2. To acquant the student with the mechanisms of action of the various chemotherapeutic drugs and their toxic effects;
3. To acquaint the student with the chemistry and the structure-activity relationship of these therapeutic agents;
4. To acquaint the student with the mechanisms of drug resistance, role of immunity in chemotherapy, and the rationale for combination therapy.
Course Contents:
Principles of chemotherapy. The chemistry and mechanism of action of antiparasitic, antimicrobial and antineoplastic agents, antimalarials, and antiviral agents. Trypanocides, schistosomicides and amoebicides. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents - antimalarials and antibiotics.

UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
1. To acquaint the student with the concepts of toxicology and the roles of the various disciplines in toxicology;
2. To acquaint the student with the numerous sources, site and mechanisms of how drugs can and do act as hazards on biological system;
3. To acquaint the student with the types of adverse effects and examples which produce them;
4. To acquaint the student with the toxicological prerequisites for evaluating new drugs in different countries;
5. To acquaint the student with the post-marketing surveillance of drugs.
Course Contents:
General principles of toxicology. Toxicity testing. Organotoxicity - oculartoxicity, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Adverse drug interactions and generic components in clinical practice.

COURSE TITLE:Introductory Pharmaceutics
UNITS:2 + 0 + 0; 1 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
At the end of the course, each student should be able to:
    1. Calculate correctly the proportions (by weight or volume) of the different ingredients needed to prepare a given volume of any pharmaceutical preparation.
    2. Know the scientific basis of the unit operations employed in pharmacy.
    3. Recognise the different classes of disperse systems and their application in pharmacy.
    4. Enumerate the different types of emulsions.
    5. Enumerate all the different factors which can affect the stability of emulsions.
    6. List the different types of powders and their properties/uses.
    7. Enumerate the different types of tablets and their uses.
    8. List the advantages of tablets as a dosage form
    9. Show understanding of the production of the various types of capsules.
    10. Recognise the various liquid preparations, their uses in pharmacy, and methods of preparation.
Course Contents:
Pharmaceutical Calculations
Introductory Unit Operations
Introduction to disperse systems - Emulsions, suspensions, gels and aerosols.
Introduction to solid dosage forms.
Introduction to liquid dosage forms - solutions, syrups, elixirs, gargles, douches and aromatic waters.
Flavouring and colouring of dosage forms.

COURSE TITLE: Introductory Pharmaceutical Microbiology
UNITS:1 + 0 + 3/2, 1 + 0 + 3/2 = 3 units
The student at the end of the course must be able to:
(i) Identify and recognise various forms of bacteria morphologically.
(ii) Demonstrate phases of growth of bacteria in various environment.
(iii) Describe the formation of colonies of bacteria,
(iv) Effectively determine the population of bacteria or fungal spores in a culture.
(v) Develop and grow micro-organisms in appropriate media and environment;
(vi) Know the properties of viruses as well as the methods of cultivation.
(vii) Know the basis of classification;
(viii). Know common animal parasites and the diseases caused.
Course Contents:
Morphology of bacteria and fungi.
Cultivation of bacteria and fungi.
Growth and death in bacteria populations.
Quantitative analysis of bacterial suspensions.
Metabolism in microbial systems.
Introductory parasitology.
Laboratory exposure for handling, identification and cultivation of micro-organisms as well as various experiments to bring out salient properties of micro-organisms.

COURSE TITLE: Practical Pharmaceutics I
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 3; 0 + 0 + 3 = 2 units
Practicals will involve the basic principles of weighing, mixing, size reduction, preparation of stock solutions and a general introduction to the commonly used dosage forms.

COURSE TITLE: Liquid and Semi-solid Dosage Forms
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 0 = 4 units
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
1. Understand the fundamental properties of disperse systems used in Pharmacy.
2. Know the principles of formulation and the applications of disperse system in Pharmacy - solubilized systems, emulsions and suspensions.
3. Know the major semi-solid dosage forms used in Pharmacy, their common constituents, methods of preparation and their rheological properties.
Course Contents:
1. Fundamental Properties of Disperse (colloidal) systems.
2. Solubilized Systems - micelle and micellization.
3. Emulsions - Formulation and evaluation
4. Suspensions - Rheological properties, preparation and evaluation.
5. Semi-solid systems in Pharmacy - types, properties, preparation and performance evaluation.

COURSE TITLE: Pharmaceutical Microbiology I
UNITS:2 + 0 + 3/2; 0 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
(i) know the principles, properties and mode of action as well as conditions under which different agents of sterilisation function.
(ii) predict the effects of sterilisation procedure on the chemical and physical properties of sterilized materials.
(iii) manage and control the sterilization unit of a hospital or industrial concern.
(iv) detect any failures in the sterilisation process.
(v) to choose appropriate control mechanisms for different agents of sterilization.
Course Contents:
Sterilization - principles and processes.
Sterilization equipment.
Heat - Dry and moist heat.
Gaseous sterilization.
Heating with a bactericide.
Biological and chemical controls of sterilization.
Asepsis and Aseptic transfer - environment, products and materials.
To provide practical exposure for topics covered in PHA 302

COURSE TITLE: Dispensing
UNITS:0 + 0 + 3; 0 + 0 + 3 = 2 units
At the end of the course, the student should have a sound knowledge of how to dispense drugs to out-patients and to hospital wards.
Course Contents:
This course is aimed at offering Pharmacy students a good background on dispensing of drugs to out-patients, and to hospital wards. Students should be able to read prescriptions, compound and dispense the drugs. They should also be able to prepare all extemporaneous preparations and all official dosage forms in bulk for hospital pharmacies.

COURSE TITLE: Pharmaceutical Microbiology II
UNITS:0 + 0 + 0; 1 + 0 + 3/2 = 1 units
At the end of the course, the student must be able to:
(i) know the sources, treatment and preparation of water as a pharmaceutical vehicle.
(ii) avoid pyrogens in IV solutions and carry out pyrogen testing.
(iii) appreciate the need for sterile medicament and medical appliances.
(iv) determine and evaluate an appropriate sterilisation process for any product.
(v) determine the necessary packaging.
(vi) know the principle and basis for sterility testing.
Course Contents:
Water - Sources, treatment and examination
Pyrogens and pyrogen testing
Sterile Pharmaceutical products including:
Non-injectable sterile fluids
Ophthalmic preparations
Sutures and dressings
Sterility Test
Evaluation of microbial contents of pharmaceutical preparations and products.
To provide practical exposure for topics covered in PHA 304

COURSE TITLE:Solid Dosage Forms
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 3; 1 + 0 + 3/2 = 3 units
At the end of the course the student should be able to:
    (1) List the different properties of bulk powders.
    (2) Carry out correctly particle size analysis on a given sample of powder.
    (3) Understand the basic principles that govern the formulation of stable solid dosage forms.
    (4) Devise suitable formulation processes for any solid dosage form whose physico-chemical properties are known.
    (5) Enumerate the different types of tablet that can be produced.
    (6) Describe in detail the preparation of good quality tablets.
    (7) Carry out simple evaluation techniques on a given batch of tablets.
Course Contents:
A. Properties of the solid state: Crystal form and polymorphism, crystallisation and factors affecting crystal form, relative stability of polymorphs and their bioavailability. Formulation of solid dosage forms, modification of activity of medicament by physical and chemical methods, control of drug release, formulation factors.
B. Micrometirics: Particle size and size distribution, method of determining particle size and surface area, bulk properties (particle packing, bulk density, porosity), powder flow and its relevance to pharmacy.
C. Tabletting: Advantages, types tablet additives, manufacture of tablets, tablet machine, coating, standardization procedures, sustained release tablets.
D. Capsules: Materials for capsules, Method of capsule production, formulation, encapsulated products.
Introduction to powder technology, principles of granulation, tabletting, encapsulation and techniques for the preparation of microencapsulates.

COURSE TITLE: Pharmaceutical Microbiology III
UNITS:1 + 0 + 3/2; 1 + 0 + 3/2 = 3 units
The student at the end of the course must be able to:
    (i) know the properties, mechanisms of action and uses of the different classes of disinfectants and antiseptics that are in pharmaceutical practice.
    (ii) discuss the need for the use of preservatives and make the correct choice under a given set of conditions.
    (iii) design and carry out tests for the evaluation of preservative activity.
    (iv) relate Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) to the preparation of effectively preserved pharmaceutical products.
    (v) consider the selection of organisms, types of fermenters and adequate media for the most appropriate production process for solvents, antibiotics steroids etc.
Course Contents:
Antimicrobial Agents Definitions, types and properties.
Factors affecting activity of antimicrobial agents.
Evaluation of the activity of such antimicrobial agents.
Preservation - Contamination sources and hazards and properties of preservatives.
Preservation of pharmaceutical products including multiphase systems.
Introduction to genetics.
Industrial uses of microorganisms - production of solvents, steroids, antibiotics. Choice of media and fermenters.
Yield of products.
Factors affecting production
To provide practical exposure for PHA 402. To include evaluation of disinfectants and antiseptics; effect of various factors on activity and evaluation of antibiotic activity and demonstration of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

COURSE TITLEPharmaceutical Industrial Development and Processing
UNITS:2 + 0 + 4/2; 0 + 0 + 0 = 2 units
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
(a) Identify the requirements of build-up of industrial premises and plants.
(b) Enumerate and discuss the principles of Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic processing.
(c) Apply the principles of processing in practice.
(d) Describe the materials for construction of Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic equipment and plants.
(e) Describe the functions and handle adequately Pharmaceutical and cosmetic equipment.
(f) Prepare and evaluate selected cosmetic products.
(g) Discuss the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).
Course Contents:
Requirements of build up of premises and plants. Principles of Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic processing.
    (1) Heat transfer.
    (2) Momentum transfer and fluid flow
    (3) Milling and size separation.
    (4) Mixing.
    (5) Classification and Filtration
    (6) Evaporation and Drying
    (7) Compaction and Compression
    (8) Materials of construction of Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic equipment and packing materials.
    (9) Elements of law for the Industrial Pharmacist.
Operation of pilot equipment like the:
    (1) Steam generator.
    (2) Climbing film evaporator.
    (3) All types of mixers (liquid/liquid; solid/solid; solid/semi-solid; solid/liquid etc).
    (4) Single punch and rotary tabletting machines.
    (5) Mills for size reduction.
    (6) Fluid bed dryer.
    (7) Plate and frame pillers.
    (8) Automatic filling and capping machines.
The appropriate use of selected equipment from above in the preparation and manufacture of some cosmetic products such as creams, lotions, shampoos, face and body powders, lipsticks, bath preparations etc will be discussed. The performance and evaluation of such products will also be undertaken.
Exposure to various Industrial Pharmaceutical Processing and Quality Control. Industrial visits to selected Pharmaceutical industries in conjunction with Pharmaceutical Chemistry department. At the end of the course, the student must write a report that will be part of final assessment.

COURSE TITLE:Pharmaceutical Microbiology IV
UNITS: 0 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 0 = 2units
At the end of the course the student should be able to:
    (i) enumerate the properties and uses of whole blood and blood fractions;
    (ii) give necessary advice on the preservation and uses of whole blood and blood products;
    (iii) show an understanding of the need and use of plasma substitutes;
    (iv) define hapten, antigen and antibody; specific and non-specific defense mechanisms;
    (v) describe humoral and cell mediated immune responses;
    (vi) describe primary and secondary response and relate to immunity to disease;
    (vii) demonstrate an understanding of the role of immunological products in the prevention and cure of diseases.
    (viii).enumerate the cause of hypersensitivity and describe the involvement of drugs in the reaction.
    (ix) recognise causes of allergy and the reactions developed.
Course Contents:
1. Blood and Blood Products
    (a). Properties and uses of whole blood and fractions.
    (b). Preservation of whole blood and blood fractions.
2. Introductory Immunology
    (a). Specific and non-specific defense mechanisms.
    (b). Humoral immunity.
    (c). Monoclonal antibodies - production and application.
    (d). Cell mediated immunity.
    (e). Hypersensitivity.
    (f). Tissue transplantation.
    (g). Immunological products vaccines, immunosera and human immunoglobulins.

COURSE TITLE: Developments in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Design
At the end of the course, the student should:
    (1) Understand the various limitations of conventional dosage forms
    (2) Understand the various attempts to improve upon conventional dosage forms (various stages in the evolution of Pharmaceutical dosage forms) and the principles of formulation of the novel drug delivery systems.
    (3) be acquainted with the formulation and application of multiple and micro-emulsions in drug delivery systems.
    (4) be familiar with the use of Operation research in dosage form design
Course Contents:
(1) A brief review of the objectives of an efficient drug delivery system.
(2) Conventional methods of drug admninistration and their drawbacks.
(3) Prodrug, sustained release, repeat action prolonged release dosage forms (Definition and Formulation) - Controlled release drug delivery systems (Definition, and the philosophy behind their design; classification of controlled release drug delivery systems.
(4) Targetable drug delivery system.
    (4.1) Concept of drug targetting.
    (4.2) Particulate materials used in drug targetting
    (4.3) Passive and active drug targetting.
    (4.4) The use of homing devices to increase tissue specificity.
    (4.5) Disease for which these targetable drug delivery systems have been applied.
(5) Multiple and Microemulsions as drug delivery systems.
(6) The use of operation research in dosage form design.

COURSE TITLEPharmaceutical Inorganic and Physical Chemistry
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 0; 2 + 1 + 0 = 5 units
At the end of the course, the students are expected to:
    (1) understand the basis of the use of inorganic compounds in Pharmacy as drugs or as tools in analysis;
    (2) understand the sources of impurities in inorganic pharmaceuticals and the principle behind their limit determinations;
    (3) show the knowledge of the principles of the physical and chemical behaviour of drugs in neutral, acidic and basic media;
    (4) have a good understanding of reaction kinetics and their application in pharmacy.
Course Contents:
1. Introduction and relevance to Pharmacy
2. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY - Consideration of properties (including storage, limit test, assay, uses) of inorganic compounds of pharmaceutical importance including coordinate compounds and the importance of metal ions in biological systems.
    (a) Solubility of drugs and distribution phenomena, factors affecting rate of solution.
    (b) Vapour pressure and distillation.
    (d) Phase equilibra: phase rule, phase diagrams for 2 or 3 components systems, Eutectic mixtures.
    (a) Acids and Bases: dissociation of acids and bases.
    (b) Buffers: Mechanism of buffering action, Henderson - Hasselbalch equation, types of buffers, preparation of pharmaceutical buffers.
    (c) Conductivity of weak and strong electrolytes, solubility measurement from conductivity and conductimetric titrations including application in pharmacy.
    (d) Potentiometry: Standard electrode potential, concentration cells, pH measurements and potentiometric titrations (principles and application in pharmacy).
    (a) Order of reactions, factors affecting rate of reaction
    (b) Pharmaceutical applications of reaction kinetics - shelf-life, accelerated storage test, reactions and decomposition of drugs in solutions.
    (c) Catalysis and kinetics of enzyme reactions.
    (a) Internal energy and interconversion of energy, first law, enthalphy, exo- and endothermic reactions, reversibility of reactions equilibrum constants and temperature effect.
    (b) Second law, entropy, heat of reaction and temperature effect, heat of formation,. Third law.
    (c) Free energy as criterion for spontaneous reactions, free energy equations for ideal gases, free energy and equilibrum constants and variation with temperature.

COURSE TITLE:Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry
UNITS:2 + 0 + 0; 2 + 1 + 0 = 5 units
At the end of the course, the students will have knowledge of:
    1. basic understanding of bond formation and breakage in organic chemistry and functional groups and nomenclatusre of organic compounds of medicinal interest.
    2. the mechanistic explanations of substitution/elimination/addition reaction and be able to recognise molecules of biological and pharmaceutical interest which undergo these reactions.
    3. geometrical and optical isomerism, including an appreciation of their effect on biological activity.
Course Contents:
1. INTRODUCTION: A description of the course and its relevance to Pharmacy.
Atomic and molecular orbital hybridisation and covalent bonding, other types of bonding. Bond characteristics and electronic effects i.e. inductive, mesomeric, resonance, delocalisation and aromaticity, bond breakage and stabilisation of positive and negative ions and free radicals.
Concept of functional group and nomenclature of organic compounds with examples of pharmaceutically important compounds in each class.
Isomerism - structural and stereochemical. Tetrahedron carbon and nitrogen, d and l terminology. Optical activity and measurement. Geometry of alkene and aromatics. Cis/trans, E/Z with medical examples.
Various definitions and a discussion on molecular features affecting acidity and basicity including heterocyclic systems, Extensive illustration with drug examples containing relevant functional groups.
A general review of bond breakage and description of substitution, elimination, addition, rearrangement and free radical reactions.
Reaction at sp1 carbon
Reactions at sp2 carbon
Reactions at sp3 carbon

COURSE TITLE: Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry I
UNITS:0 + 0 + 3; 0 + 0 + 3 = 2 units
To complement the theoretical principles involved in PHC 201 and 202 and provide instructional laboratory classes to general analytical methods.
Course Contents:
Laboratory classes involving volumetric analysis, functional group test, limit tests, colorimetric, refractometric and potentiometric analysis of pharmaceutical substances. Examination will be by continuous assessment.

COURSE TITLE: Radiopharmacy and selected Physicochemical Methods of Analysis
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 1+ 1 + 4 = 4 units
At the end of the course, the students are expected
(1) to understand the sourcing, handling, storage, use and disposal of radio-pharmaceuticals.
(2) to be able to carry out spectroscopic and polarographic analysis of medicinal products.
Course Contents:
Types of radiation and production of radioisotopes Radioactive decay. Detection and measurement of radioactivity. General application of radioactivity. Biological effects and handling of radioactive materials, properties, uses and synthesis of selected inorganic and organic radionuclides used in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, disposal of radiopharmaceuticals.
2. Polarimetry and Refractometry - Principles and applications in pharmacy.
Polarography, principles and applications; Amperometric titrations.
The principles, instrumentation and applications of spectroscopic techniques e.g. UV, IR, Flourimetry, NMR, MS.
Laboratory classes will involve chemical and spectroscopic characterisation of pharmaceuticals. In the case of spectroscopy students will have opportunity to use the UV and IR but the exposure will be backed up mostly with dry laboratories

COURSE TITLE: Medicinal Chemistry I
UNITS: 2 + 0 + 4; 0 + 0 + 0 = 3 units
At the end of the course, the students are expected to:
1. understand the mechanism of action of drugs at molecular level.
2. explain the relationship between molecular structure and biological action.
3. show knowledge of the principles and relevance of photochemistry to pharmacy.
4. understand the drug factors such as polarity, acidity, shape and size that affect drug-receptor interactions.
Course Contents:
Exposure to the various classes of oxidising and reducing reagents and factors governing choice of method.
Chemistry of heterocyclic compounds (i.e. properties and reactions) of 5 - and 6 - membered rings having one or more heteroatoms.
General principles, characteristics and fate of excited species with emphasis on their synthetic applications and relevance to drug product stability. Photostability testing of drugs and selected photochemical processes of biological interest e.g. vision, bioluminescence, vit. D. photosynthesis and development of photochemical therapies in medicine.
Physicochemical factors which affect drug action, for example, pKa, ionisation etc. and receptor theories. Conformation, Ring shapes C3 C7 with examples. Overall discussion of effect of stereochemistry on biological activity.
5. STEROIDS - Synthesis, stereochemistry and assay of various classes of steroids and steroid hormones.
6. THE VITAMINS - Synthesis, stereochemistry and assay of various vitamins.
7. Practical:
Laboratory classes involving application of selected synthetic (including photochemical) methods to the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents, selected chemical assay procedures.

COURSE TITLE:Medicinal Chemistry II
UNITS:0 + 0 + 0; 2 + 0 + 4 = 3 units
At the end of the course the students are expected to be able to appreciate the structural features and demonstrate knowledge of the sourcing, stability, assay and structure activity relationships of drug acting on the CNS, ANS, antihistamines and analgesics in current use.
Course Contents:
Selected examples from each of the groups of drugs below will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on the development from natural products where appropriate, chemical stability, syntheses, assays and structure - activity relationship.
General anaesthetics, sedative hypnotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilisers and antidepressants. Narcotic analgesics.
2. ANTIPYRETIC ANALGESICS: including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
3. DRUGS ACTING ON THE ANS: The sympathomimetic amines and antihistamine including the development of antagonists at H1 and H2 receptors. Local anaesthetics
4. Practicals:
Selected synthetic methods in medicinal chemistry as well as selected assay procedures.
COURSE TITLE: Principles of Drug Development and Design
UNITS: 1 + 0 + 0; 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 unit
At the end of the course, the students are expected to understand the role of medicinal chemistry in the discovery and development of therapeutic agents.
Course Contents:
(A) Search for 'leads' as a drug designer
      - from natural products
      - application of hypothesis
      - serendipity or accidental
      - drug metabolites
      - side effects of existing drugs
      - mass screening for biological action
(B) Molecular modifications and correlation of chemical structure with biological activity.
(C) Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) in the design of new drugs.
(D) Pro-drug/Soft-drug, antimetabolite and bioisosteric approaches to drug design.

COURSE TITLEPharmaceutical Analysis and Drug quality control
UNITS:1 + 0 + 6; 1 + 0 + 0 = 4 units
At the end of the course, the students are expected to:
(1) know the sources of quality variation
(2) understand the testing programmes and methods for assuring quality and compliance with official standards and specifications.
(3) appreciate the tremendous professional, social and legal responsibilities associated with the assurance of product quality.
Course Contents:
(1) General principles of drug quality control and assurance systems
(2) Structural organisation and functions of a Quality Control Department.
(3) Sources of impurities in pharmaceutical substances, sources of quality variation of pharmaceutical products.
(4) Environmental control of manufacturing area.
(5) Monographs and specifications for drugs and drug products. Critical evaluation of the Pharmacopoieas including the African Pharmacopoiea and the role of WHO in drug quality assurance.
(6) Application of chemical and physicochemical analytical techniques in purity determination, identification and quantitation of drugs in pharmaceutical and radiopharmaceutical preparations, including multicomponent formulations from a regulatory and quality control standpoint.
(7) Evaluation of crude drugs
(8) Microbiological evaluation of sterile and non-sterile pharmaceutical products.
Practical work will involve comprehensive analysis of some selected raw materials and finished drug products using a combination of analytical principles treated in the theory. It will be supplemented by visits to local manufacturing units where the student may examine the practice of quality control.

Copyright 2005 Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, ile-ife.
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